Quick Reference

Type of Harvest: Single harvest

Transplant/Direct Sow: Direct sow or transplant

When to Plant: Start seeds indoors 8 weeks before the average last frost date for spring, and 6-8 weeks before the average first frost date for a fall garden.

Days to Germinate: 10-14 days

Days to Maturity: 70-90 days

Planting Depth: ½ ” deep

Germination Temp: 40°F

Seed Spacing: Plant 3” apart. Thin to 12-20” apart.

Row Spacing: 2' apart

Light: Full sun

Soil pH: 6.0-7.0 pH

Water:  1- 1 ½” of water per week

Soil Temperature: Minimum 40°F. These are cool weather loving plants.

Fertilizer: 5-10-10 N-P-K ratio

Rotation: Not needed for the broccoli, but good practice.  Broccoli

helps prevent soil-born plant diseases and is good for the bed.


Harvest Type

Broccoli is generally a single harvest plant. However, you can sometimes get a second harvest if you continue to water and feed the stalk.

Transplant / Direct Sow

In the spring, start seeds indoors about eight weeks before the average last frost date. Because broccoli is a cool weather plant, you can direct sow seeds in late summer, about eight weeks before the average first frost date. Broccoli plants and seedlings will tolerate frost. If you live in a colder region, use row covers to protect the winter garden. Transplant seedlings when they are 3-4 inches tall and when the soil temperature is above 40°F.


Full Sun

When to Plant:

Transplant or direct sow seeds when the soil temperature is 40°F.

Days to germinate

It takes most broccoli cultivars 10-14 days to sprout.

Days to maturity

It takes about 70 days for broccoli to form heads and as long as 100 days to reach full maturity.

Planting Depth

Plant seeds 1/2" deep.

Germination Temperature Range

Germination is best when the soil is 40°F.

Spacing Between Plants

Plant seeds 3" apart and thin to 12-20". Broccoli is a wide plant with a narrow rootzone.

TIP: Don't be afraid to over-plant brassicas if you have the extra room. Your livestock will love them.

Companion Plants

Mustard, kale, kohlrabi, peas, chard, onions, strawberries, pole beans, and tomatoes all make excellent companion plants for broccoli.

Growing conditions

Broccoli likes a little cold weather. Start with good, well-draining soil—water with 1-1.5" of water per week, keeping the ground evenly moist.  Plant in full sun. Broccoli will bolt if the weather becomes too warm, so start seeds indoors for spring plantings.

Tip:  Broccoli is a favorite for aphids. You can minimize pest issues with broccoli by installing a row cover.


Broccoli is an excellent crop to rotate as it helps to prevent certain soil-borne plant diseases.

Anticipated yields

Plan your garden yield at 4-8 Broccoli plants per person. Expect 4-6 pounds of broccoli per 10 feet of row space. If you over-plant, you can share them with others or give the extra fruit to chickens and livestock as a treat.

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